науч. статьи:   демократия как оружие политической и экономической победы в условиях перемен --- конфликты в Сирии и на Украине по теории гражданских войн

науч. статьи:   пассионарно-этническое описание русских и др. важнейших народов мира --- принципы для улучшения брака: 1 и 3 - женщинам, а 4 и 6 - мужчинам
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Leukemia is among the
greatest of afflictions that are passed on to the offspring of survivors.
While the main purpose behind the atomic bomb is obvious, there are many
by-products that have been brought into consideration in the use of all
weapons atomic. With one small atomic bomb, a massive area's communications,
travel and machinery will grind to a dead halt due to the EMP (Electro-
Magnetic Pulse) that is radiated from a high-altitude atomic detonation.
These high-level detonations are hardly lethal, yet they deliver a serious
enough EMP to scramble any and all things electronic ranging from copper wires
all the way up to a computer's CPU within a 50 mile radius.
At one time, during the early days of The Atomic Age, it was a popular
notion that one day atomic bombs would one day be used in mining operations
and perhaps aid in the construction of another Panama Canal. Needless to say,
it never came about. Instead, the military applications of atomic destruction
increased. Atomic tests off of the Bikini Atoll and several other sites were
common up until the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty was introduced. Photos of nuclear
test sites here in the United States can be obtained through the Freedom of
Information Act.
- Breakdown of the Atomic Bomb's Blast Zones -

. .

. . .
. .
[5] [4] [5]
. . . .
. . . .
. [3] _ [3] .
. . [2] . .
. _._ .
. .~ ~. .
. . [4] . .[2]. [1] .[2]. . [4] . .
. . . .
. ~-.-~ .
. . [2] . .
. [3] - [3] .
. . . .
. ~ ~ .
[5] . [4] . [5]
. .

. .

- Diagram Outline -

[1] Vaporization Point
Everything is vaporized by the atomic blast. 98% fatalities.
Overpress=25 psi. Wind velocity=320 mph.
[2] Total Destruction
All structures above ground are destroyed. 90% fatalities.
Overpress=17 psi. Wind velocity=290 mph.
[3] Severe Blast Damage
Factories and other large-scale building collapse. Severe damage
to highway bridges. Rivers sometimes flow countercurrent.
65% fatalities, 30% injured.
Overpress=9 psi. Wind velocity=260 mph.
[4] Severe Heat Damage
Everything flammable burns. People in the area suffocate due to
the fact that most available oxygen is consumed by the fires.
50% fatalities, 45% injured.
Overpress=6 psi. Wind velocity=140 mph.
[5] Severe Fire & Wind Damage
Residency structures are severely damaged. People are blown
around. 2nd and 3rd-degree burns suffered by most survivors.
15% dead. 50% injured.
Overpress=3 psi. Wind velocity=98 mph.

- Blast Zone Radii -
[3 different bomb types]
______________________ ______________________ ______________________
| | | | | |
| -[10 KILOTONS]- | | -[1 MEGATON]- | | -[20 MEGATONS]- |
|----------------------| |----------------------| |----------------------|
| Airburst - 1,980 ft | | Airburst - 8,000 ft | | Airburst - 17,500 ft |
|______________________| |______________________| |______________________|
| | | | | |
| [1] 0.5 miles | | [1] 2.5 miles | | [1] 8.75 miles |
| [2] 1 mile | | [2] 3.75 miles | | [2] 14 miles |
| [3] 1.75 miles | | [3] 6.5 miles | | [3] 27 miles |
| [4] 2.5 miles | | [4] 7.75 miles | | [4] 31 miles |
| [5] 3 miles | | [5] 10 miles | | [5] 35 miles |
| | | | | |
|______________________| |______________________| |______________________|

-End of section 1-

File courtesy of Outlaw Labs
II. Nuclear Fission/Nuclear Fusion

There are 2 types of atomic explosions that can be facilitated by U-235;
fission and fusion. Fission, simply put, is a nuclear reaction in which an
atomic nucleus splits into fragments, usually two fragments of comparable
mass, with the evolution of approximately 100 million to several hundred
million volts of energy. This energy is expelled explosively and violently in
the atomic bomb. A fusion reaction is invariably started with a fission
reaction, but unlike the fission reaction, the fusion (Hydrogen) bomb derives
its power from the fusing of nuclei of various hydrogen isotopes in the
formation of helium nuclei. Being that the bomb in this file is strictly
atomic, the other aspects of the Hydrogen Bomb will be set aside for now.
The massive power behind the reaction in an atomic bomb arises from the
forces that hold the atom together. These forces are akin to, but not quite
the same as, magnetism.
Atoms are comprised of three sub-atomic particles. Protons and neutrons
cluster together to form the nucleus (central mass) of the atom while the
electrons orbit the nucleus much like planets around a sun. It is these
particles that determine the stability of the atom.
Most natural elements have very stable atoms which are impossible to
split except by bombardment by particle accelerators. For all practical
purposes, the one true element whose atoms can be split comparatively easily
is the metal Uranium. Uranium's atoms are unusually large, henceforth, it is
hard for them to hold together firmly. This makes Uranium-235 an exceptional
candidate for nuclear fission.
Uranium is a heavy metal, heavier than gold, and not only does it have
the largest atoms of any natural element, the atoms that comprise Uranium have
far more neutrons than protons. This does not enhance their capacity to
split, but it does have an important bearing on their capacity to facilitate
an explosion.
There are two isotopes of Uranium. Natural Uranium consists mostly of
isotope U-238, which has 92 protons and 146 neutrons (92+146=238). Mixed with
this isotope, one will find a 0.6% accumulation of U-235, which has only 143
neutrons. This isotope, unlike U-238, has atoms that can be split, thus it is
termed "fissionable" and useful in making atomic bombs. Being that U-238 is
neutron-heavy, it reflects neutrons, rather than absorbing them like its
brother isotope, U-235. (U-238 serves no function in an atomic reaction, but
its properties provide an excellent shield for the U-235 in a constructed bomb
as a neutron reflector. This helps prevent an accidental chain reaction
between the larger U-235 mass and its `bullet' counterpart within the bomb.
Also note that while U-238 cannot facilitate a chain-reaction, it can be
neutron-saturated to produce Plutonium (Pu-239). Plutonium is fissionable and
can be used in place of Uranium-235 {albeit, with a different model of
detonator} in an atomic bomb. [See Sections 3 & 4 of this file.])
Both isotopes of Uranium are naturally radioactive. Their bulky atoms
disintegrate over a period of time. Given enough time, (over 100,000 years or
more) Uranium will eventually lose so many particles that it will turn into
the metal lead. However, this process can be accelerated. This process is
known as the chain reaction. Instead of disintegrating slowly, the atoms are
forcibly split by neutrons forcing their way into the nucleus. A U-235 atom
is so unstable that a blow from a single neutron is enough to split it and
henceforth bring on a chain reaction.
1 2 3 4 5 6
науч. статьи:   политический прогноз для России --- праздники в России на основе ключевых дат в истории --- законы пассионарности и завоевания этноса

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