науч. статьи:   демократия как оружие политической и экономической победы в условиях перемен --- конфликты в Сирии и на Украине по теории гражданских войн --- циклы национализма и патриотизма

науч. статьи:   идеологии России, Украины, ЕС и США --- пассионарно-этническое описание русских и др. важнейших народов мира --- принципы для улучшения брака: 1 и 3 - женщинам, а 4 и 6 - мужчинам
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Before setting the strip in place, push the bubble in
so that it will be inverted.
Once the air pressure has achieved the desired level, the magnetic bubble
will snap back into its original position and strike the contact, thus
completing the circuit and setting off the explosive(s).

Detonating Head
The detonating head (or heads, depending on whether a Uranium or
Plutonium bomb is being used as a model) that is seated in the conventional
explosive charge(s) is similar to the standard-issue blasting cap. It merely
serves as a catalyst to bring about a greater explosion. Calibration of this
device is essential. Too small of a detonating head will only cause a
colossal dud that will be doubly dangerous since someone's got to disarm and
re-fit the bomb with another detonating head. (an added measure of discomfort
comes from the knowledge that the conventional explosive may have detonated
with insufficient force to weld the radioactive metals. This will cause a
supercritical mass that could go off at any time.) The detonating head will
receive an electric charge from the either the air pressure detonator or the
radar altimeter's coordinating detonator, depending on what type of system is
used. The Du Pont company makes rather excellent blasting caps that can be
easily modified to suit the required specifications.

Conventional Explosive Charge(s)
This explosive is used to introduce (and weld) the lesser amount of
Uranium to the greater amount within the bomb's housing. [The amount of
pressure needed to bring this about is unknown and possibly classified by the
United States Government for reasons of National Security]
Plastic explosives work best in this situation since they can be
manipulated to enable both a Uranium bomb and a Plutonium bomb to detonate.
One very good explosive is Urea Nitrate. The directions on how to make Urea
Nitrate are as follows:
- Ingredients -
[1] 1 cup concentrated solution of uric acid (C5 H4 N4 O3)
[2] 1/3 cup of nitric acid
[3] 4 heat-resistant glass containers
[4] 4 filters (coffee filters will do)

Filter the concentrated solution of uric acid through a filter to remove
impurities. Slowly add 1/3 cup of nitric acid to the solution and let the
mixture stand for 1 hour. Filter again as before. This time the Urea Nitrate
crystals will collect on the filter. Wash the crystals by pouring water over
them while they are in the filter. Remove the crystals from the filter and
allow 16 hours for them to dry. This explosive will need a blasting cap to

It may be necessary to make a quantity larger than the aforementioned
list calls for to bring about an explosion great enough to cause the Uranium
(or Plutonium) sections to weld together on impact.

Neutron Deflector
The neutron deflector is comprised solely of Uranium-238. Not only is
U-238 non-fissionable, it also has the unique ability to reflect neutrons back
to their source.
The U-238 neutron deflector can serve 2 purposes. In a Uranium bomb, the
neutron deflector serves as a safeguard to keep an accidental supercritical
mass from occurring by bouncing the stray neutrons from the `bullet'
counterpart of the Uranium mass away from the greater mass below it (and vice-
versa). The neutron deflector in a Plutonium bomb actually helps the wedges
of Plutonium retain their neutrons by `reflecting' the stray particles back
into the center of the assembly. [See diagram in Section 4 of this file.]

Uranium & Plutonium
Uranium-235 is very difficult to extract. In fact, for every 25,000 tons
of Uranium ore that is mined from the earth, only 50 tons of Uranium metal can
be refined from that, and 99.3% of that metal is U-238 which is too stable to
be used as an active agent in an atomic detonation. To make matters even more
complicated, no ordinary chemical extraction can separate the two isotopes
since both U-235 and U-238 possess precisely identical chemical
characteristics. The only methods that can effectively separate U-235 from
U-238 are mechanical methods.
U-235 is slightly, but only slightly, lighter than its counterpart,
U-238. A system of gaseous diffusion is used to begin the separating process
between the two isotopes. In this system, Uranium is combined with fluorine
to form Uranium Hexafluoride gas. This mixture is then propelled by low-
pressure pumps through a series of extremely fine porous barriers. Because
the U-235 atoms are lighter and thus propelled faster than the U-238 atoms,
they could penetrate the barriers more rapidly. As a result, the
U-235's concentration became successively greater as it passed through each
barrier. After passing through several thousand barriers, the Uranium
Hexafluoride contains a relatively high concentration of U-235 -- 2% pure
Uranium in the case of reactor fuel, and if pushed further could
(theoretically) yield up to 95% pure Uranium for use in an atomic bomb.
Once the process of gaseous diffusion is finished, the Uranium must be
refined once again. Magnetic separation of the extract from the previous
enriching process is then implemented to further refine the Uranium. This
involves electrically charging Uranium Tetrachloride gas and directing it past
a weak electromagnet. Since the lighter U-235 particles in the gas stream are
less affected by the magnetic pull, they can be gradually separated from the
Following the first two procedures, a third enrichment process is then
applied to the extract from the second process. In this procedure, a gas
centrifuge is brought into action to further separate the lighter U-235 from
its heavier counter-isotope. Centrifugal force separates the two isotopes of
Uranium by their mass. Once all of these procedures have been completed, all
that need be done is to place the properly molded components of Uranium-235
inside a warhead that will facilitate an atomic detonation.
Supercritical mass for Uranium-235 is defined as 110 lbs (50 kgs) of
pure Uranium.
Depending on the refining process(es) used when purifying the U-235 for
use, along with the design of the warhead mechanism and the altitude at which
it detonates, the explosive force of the A-bomb can range anywhere from 1
kiloton (which equals 1,000 tons of TNT) to 20 megatons (which equals 20
million tons of TNT -- which, by the way, is the smallest strategic nuclear
warhead we possess today. {Point in fact -- One Trident Nuclear Submarine
carries as much destructive power as 25 World War II's}).
While Uranium is an ideally fissionable material, it is not the only one.
Plutonium can be used in an atomic bomb as well. By leaving U-238 inside an
atomic reactor for an extended period of time, the U-238 picks up extra
particles (neutrons especially) and gradually is transformed into the element
Plutonium is fissionable, but not as easily fissionable as Uranium.
While Uranium can be detonated by a simple 2-part gun-type device, Plutonium
must be detonated by a more complex 32-part implosion chamber along with a
stronger conventional explosive, a greater striking velocity and a
simultaneous triggering mechanism for the conventional explosive packs. Along
with all of these requirements comes the additional task of introducing a fine
mixture of Beryllium and Polonium to this metal while all of these actions are
Supercritical mass for Plutonium is defined as 35.2 lbs (16 kgs). This
amount needed for a supercritical mass can be reduced to a smaller quantity of
22 lbs (10 kgs) by surrounding the Plutonium with a U-238 casing.

To illustrate the vast difference between a Uranium gun-type detonator
and a Plutonium implosion detonator, here is a quick rundown.

[1] Uranium Detonator
Comprised of 2 parts. Larger mass is spherical and concave.
Smaller mass is precisely the size and shape of the `missing'
section of the larger mass. Upon detonation of conventional
explosive, the smaller mass is violently injected and welded
to the larger mass. Supercritical mass is reached, chain
reaction follows in one millionth of a second.

[2] Plutonium Detonator
Comprised of 32 individual 45-degree pie-shaped sections of
Plutonium surrounding a Beryllium/Polonium mixture. These 32
sections together form a sphere. All of these sections must
have the precisely equal mass (and shape) of the others. The
shape of the detonator resembles a soccerball. Upon detonation
of conventional explosives, all 32 sections must merge with the
B/P mixture within 1 ten-millionths of a second.

=== Cut ===

С yважением, MeteO
--- GoldED 3.00.Beta3+
* Origin: Мой адpес не дом и не yлица, мой адpес (2:5020/1376.43)
- Diagram -
[Uranium Detonator] | [Plutonium Detonator]
_____ |
| :
1 2 3 4 5 6
науч. статьи:   политический прогноз для России --- праздники в России на основе ключевых дат в истории --- законы пассионарности и завоевания этноса

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