науч. статьи:   демократия как оружие политической и экономической победы в условиях перемен --- конфликты в Сирии и на Украине по теории гражданских войн --- циклы национализма и патриотизма
ТОП авторов и книг     ИСКАТЬ КНИГУ В БИБЛИОТЕКЕ

науч. статьи:   идеологии России, Украины, ЕС и США --- пассионарно-этническое описание русских и др. важнейших народов мира --- принципы для улучшения брака: 1 и 3 - женщинам, а 4 и 6 - мужчинам
А  Б  В  Г  Д  Е  Ж  З  И  Й  К  Л  М  Н  О  П  Р  С  Т  У  Ф  Х  Ц  Ч  Ш  Щ  Э  Ю  Я  AZ

 

This can happen even when a critical
mass is present. When this chain reaction occurs, the Uranium atom splits
into two smaller atoms of different elements, such as Barium and Krypton.
When a U-235 atom splits, it gives off energy in the form of heat and
Gamma radiation, which is the most powerful form of radioactivity and the most
lethal. When this reaction occurs, the split atom will also give off two or
three of its `spare' neutrons, which are not needed to make either Barium or
Krypton. These spare neutrons fly out with sufficient force to split other
atoms they come in contact with. [See chart below] In theory, it is
necessary to split only one U-235 atom, and the neutrons from this will split
other atoms, which will split more...so on and so forth. This progression
does not take place arithmetically, but geometrically. All of this will
happen within a millionth of a second.
The minimum amount to start a chain reaction as described above is known
as SuperCritical Mass. The actual mass needed to facilitate this chain
reaction depends upon the purity of the material, but for pure U-235, it is
110 pounds (50 kilograms), but no Uranium is never quite pure, so in reality
more will be needed.
Uranium is not the only material used for making atomic bombs. Another
material is the element Plutonium, in its isotope Pu-239. Plutonium is not
found naturally (except in minute traces) and is always made from Uranium.
The only way to produce Plutonium from Uranium is to process U-238 through a
nuclear reactor. After a period of time, the intense radioactivity causes the
metal to pick up extra particles, so that more and more of its atoms turn into
Plutonium.
Plutonium will not start a fast chain reaction by itself, but this
difficulty is overcome by having a neutron source, a highly radioactive
material that gives off neutrons faster than the Plutonium itself. In certain
types of bombs, a mixture of the elements Beryllium and Polonium is used to
bring about this reaction. Only a small piece is needed. The material is not
fissionable in and of itself, but merely acts as a catalyst to the greater
reaction.

============================================================================

- Diagram of a Chain Reaction -
-------------------------------

|
|
|
|
[1]------------------------------> o
. o o .
. o_0_o . <-----------------------[2]
. o 0 o .
. o o .
|
\|/
~
. o o. .o o .
[3]-----------------------> . o_0_o"o_0_o .
. o 0 o~o 0 o .
. o o.".o o .
|
/ | \
|/_ | _\|
~~ | ~~
|
o o | o o
[4]-----------------> o_0_o | o_0_o <---------------[5]
o~0~o | o~0~o
o o ) | ( o o
/ o \
/ [1] \
/ \
/ \
/ \
o [1] [1] o
. o o . . o o . . o o .
. o_0_o . . o_0_o . . o_0_o .
. o 0 o . <-[2]-> . o 0 o . <-[2]-> . o 0 o .
. o o . . o o . . o o .
/ | \
|/_ \|/ _\|
~~ ~ ~~
. o o. .o o . . o o. .o o . . o o. .o o .
. o_0_o"o_0_o . . o_0_o"o_0_o . . o_0_o"o_0_o .
. o 0 o~o 0 o . <--[3]--> . o 0 o~o 0 o . <--[3]--> . o 0 o~o 0 o .
. o o.".o o . . o o.".o o . . o o.".o o .
. | . . | . . | .
/ | \ / | \ / | \
: | : : | : : | :
: | : : | : : | :
\:/ | \:/ \:/ | \:/ \:/ | \:/
~ | ~ ~ | ~ ~ | ~
[4] o o | o o [5] [4] o o | o o [5] [4] o o | o o [5]
o_0_o | o_0_o o_0_o | o_0_o o_0_o | o_0_o
o~0~o | o~0~o o~0~o | o~0~o o~0~o | o~0~o
o o ) | ( o o o o ) | ( o o o o ) | ( o o
/ | \ / | \ / | \
/ | \ / | \ / | \
/ | \ / | \ / | \
/ | \ / | \ / | \
/ o \ / o \ / o \
/ [1] \ / [1] \ / [1] \
o o o o o o
[1] [1] [1] [1] [1] [1]



============================================================================

- Diagram Outline -
---------------------

[1] - Incoming Neutron
[2] - Uranium-235
[3] - Uranium-236
[4] - Barium Atom
[5] - Krypton Atom


===========================================================================

-End of section 2-
-Diagrams & Documentation of the Atomic Bomb-
=== Cut ===
С yважением, MeteO
--- GoldED 3.00.Beta3+
* Origin: Мой адpес не дом и не yлица, мой адpес (2:5020/1376.43)
XC: SU.ISR&JEWS
--------------------------------
File courtesy of Outlaw Labs
--------------------------------

III. The Mechanism of The Bomb
-------------------------

Altimeter
---------
An ordinary aircraft altimeter uses a type of Aneroid Barometer which
measures the changes in air pressure at different heights. However, changes
in air pressure due to the weather can adversely affect the altimeter's
readings. It is far more favorable to use a radar (or radio) altimeter for
enhanced accuracy when the bomb reaches Ground Zero.
While Frequency Modulated-Continuous Wave (FM CW) is more complicated,
the accuracy of it far surpasses any other type of altimeter. Like simple
pulse systems, signals are emitted from a radar aerial (the bomb), bounced off
the ground and received back at the bomb's altimeter. This pulse system
applies to the more advanced altimeter system, only the signal is continuous
and centered around a high frequency such as 4200 MHz. This signal is
arranged to steadily increase at 200 MHz per interval before dropping back to
its original frequency.
As the descent of the bomb begins, the altimeter transmitter will send
out a pulse starting at 4200 MHz. By the time that pulse has returned, the
altimeter transmitter will be emitting a higher frequency. The difference
depends on how long the pulse has taken to do the return journey. When these
two frequencies are mixed electronically, a new frequency (the difference
between the two) emerges. The value of this new frequency is measured by the
built-in microchips. This value is directly proportional to the distance
travelled by the original pulse, so it can be used to give the actual height.
In practice, a typical FM CW radar today would sweep 120 times per
second. Its range would be up to 10,000 feet (3000 m) over land and 20,000
feet (6000 m) over sea, since sound reflections from water surfaces are
clearer.
The accuracy of these altimeters is within 5 feet (1.5 m) for the higher
ranges. Being that the ideal airburst for the atomic bomb is usually set for
1,980 feet, this error factor is not of enormous concern.
The high cost of these radar-type altimeters has prevented their use in
commercial applications, but the decreasing cost of electronic components
should make them competitive with barometric types before too long.

Air Pressure Detonator
----------------------
The air pressure detonator can be a very complex mechanism, but for all
practical purposes, a simpler model can be used. At high altitudes, the air
is of lesser pressure. As the altitude drops, the air pressure increases. A
simple piece of very thin magnetized metal can be used as an air pressure
detonator. All that is needed is for the strip of metal to have a bubble of
extremely thin metal forged in the center and have it placed directly
underneath the electrical contact which will trigger the conventional
explosive detonation.
1 2 3 4 5 6
науч. статьи:   политический прогноз для России --- праздники в России на основе ключевых дат в истории --- законы пассионарности и завоевания этноса
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